The T&T Chronology

Dates and Events of the T&T and the Area

Including the Bullfrog Goldfield RR and the Death Valley RR

Pre-1901 - 1901-10 - 1911-1920 - 1921-1930 - 1931-1946

Pre 1901
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 1830

Horse traders open a trail through the Amargosa Valley, later named The Spanish Trail.
 

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 12/01/1849

First Gold is found in Death Valley area near Salt Springs.
 

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 1872

A 26 year old Woodchopper discovers Borax at Teel's Marsh.
His name?   Francis Marion Smith!
 

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 Spring 1873

Borax salts are first discovered in Death Valley during the great 'Borax Fever'.
 

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 Late 1870's

W.T. Coleman takes over a failing company called Pacific Borax Company.
 

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 1880

Francis Marion Smith buys P.B. Co. from Coleman.
 

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 11/21/1881

The Death Valley Borax & Salt Mining District formed. Covers the floor of Death Valley
 

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 03/06/1882

Eagle Mountain Borax & Salt Mining District formed. Area is 6 miles west of Resting Springs.
 

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 May 1882

Daunet, Blanch & McDonald establishes Eagle Borax north of Bennett's Well.
 

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 11/03/1882

The Monte Blanco Borax & Salt Mining District formed. Later finds in this area include the Biddy McCarthy and Widow Mines
 

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 1882-83

The Eagle Borax Works is built about 2 miles north of Bennett's Well. Designed to separate the borax from the 'debris' by dissolving, settling and then crystalizing the Borax Salt. First wagon load is hauled out by a 12 mule team to the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad at Daggett, 100 miles from D.V..
 

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 Early 1883

Coleman founds the Harmony, the Henry Clay and the Meridian Mining Co's. He also establishes the Greenland and the Amargosa Co's. to process the ore.
 

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 1883-84

Lila C. deposit found by Cub & Phi Lee.
 

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 Summer 1883

C. Bennett begins hauling Borax for Coleman. By the next spring he has nine 18 mule teams working from Death Valley

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 05/15/1884

Coleman consolidates his holdings into Harmony Borax Mining Co.
 

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 Fall 1884

Mr. Perry - foreman of Coleman's operation - takes over hauling the Borax. Special wagons were built 4' w. x 16' l. x 6' d. Wheels are 5' front and 7' rear. Capacity is 10 tons, weight was 4 tons and each costs $900-1,200. A set of two wagons, with a 500 gallon tank wagon behind, leaves every four days on a 330 mile, 20 day round trip.
 

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 Nov. 1884

Coleman forms a new Meridian Borax Co. for holding his claims and California Chemical to refine and package the Borax.
 

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 1886

The Calico-Daggett mines start shipping Borax
 

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 05/07/1888

Coleman's operation goes bankrupt due to bad investments and falling prices on Borax. All mines are shut down.
 

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 03/12/1890

F.M. 'Borax' Smith buys all of Coleman's D.V., Amargosa and Calico properties for $550,000, and re-opens the Calico works.
 

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 Sep. 1890

Smith consolidates all his holdings into the Pacific Coast Borax Co.
 

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 Jan. 1893

Smith's hires publicity agent, S.T. Mather (later with the U.S.N.P.S.). Mather convinces Smith to adopt the brand "20 Mule Team Borax".
 

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 11/22/1893

Coleman dies shortly after paying back all his creditors.
 

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 1898

Smith modernizes the works at Calico and builds the 8 mile Borate and Daggett Railroad, a 3' gauge. He also builds a new $1,250,000 processing plant at Bayonne, N.J. - tripling the volume of the company.
 

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 Summer 1896

Borax Smith buys a British Borax refinery and forms Pacific Borax & Redwood's Chemical Works, Ltd.
 

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 Jan. 1899

Smith combines his world-wide holdings into Borax Consolidated, Ltd., one of the first multi-national corporations.
 

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 April 1900

Smith makes his first formal suggestion that a railroad be built to the Lila C. mine, as the ore at Calico is becoming depleted.
 

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DAW -- DFM -- DTS -- HCT -- RDM -- REL

 

Pre-1901 - 1901-10 - 1911-1920 - 1921-1930 - 1931-1946

 

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02/02/2002